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"""
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    Mininet: A simple networking testbed for OpenFlow/SDN!
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author: Bob Lantz (rlantz@cs.stanford.edu)
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author: Brandon Heller (brandonh@stanford.edu)
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Mininet creates scalable OpenFlow test networks by using
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process-based virtualization and network namespaces.
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Simulated hosts are created as processes in separate network
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namespaces. This allows a complete OpenFlow network to be simulated on
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top of a single Linux kernel.
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Each host has:
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A virtual console (pipes to a shell)
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A virtual interfaces (half of a veth pair)
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A parent shell (and possibly some child processes) in a namespace
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Hosts have a network interface which is configured via ifconfig/ip
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link/etc.
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This version supports both the kernel and user space datapaths
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from the OpenFlow reference implementation (openflowswitch.org)
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as well as OpenVSwitch (openvswitch.org.)
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In kernel datapath mode, the controller and switches are simply
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processes in the root namespace.
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Kernel OpenFlow datapaths are instantiated using dpctl(8), and are
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attached to the one side of a veth pair; the other side resides in the
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host namespace. In this mode, switch processes can simply connect to the
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controller via the loopback interface.
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In user datapath mode, the controller and switches can be full-service
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nodes that live in their own network namespaces and have management
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interfaces and IP addresses on a control network (e.g. 192.168.123.1,
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currently routed although it could be bridged.)
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In addition to a management interface, user mode switches also have
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several switch interfaces, halves of veth pairs whose other halves
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reside in the host nodes that the switches are connected to.
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Consistent, straightforward naming is important in order to easily
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identify hosts, switches and controllers, both from the CLI and
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from program code. Interfaces are named to make it easy to identify
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which interfaces belong to which node.
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The basic naming scheme is as follows:
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    Host nodes are named h1-hN
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    Switch nodes are named s1-sN
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    Controller nodes are named c0-cN
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    Interfaces are named {nodename}-eth0 .. {nodename}-ethN
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Note: If the network topology is created using mininet.topo, then
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node numbers are unique among hosts and switches (e.g. we have
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h1..hN and SN..SN+M) and also correspond to their default IP addresses
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of 10.x.y.z/8 where x.y.z is the base-256 representation of N for
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hN. This mapping allows easy determination of a node's IP
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address from its name, e.g. h1 -> 10.0.0.1, h257 -> 10.0.1.1.
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Note also that 10.0.0.1 can often be written as 10.1 for short, e.g.
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"ping 10.1" is equivalent to "ping 10.0.0.1".
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Currently we wrap the entire network in a 'mininet' object, which
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constructs a simulated network based on a network topology created
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using a topology object (e.g. LinearTopo) from mininet.topo or
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mininet.topolib, and a Controller which the switches will connect
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to. Several configuration options are provided for functions such as
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automatically setting MAC addresses, populating the ARP table, or
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even running a set of terminals to allow direct interaction with nodes.
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After the network is created, it can be started using start(), and a
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variety of useful tasks maybe performed, including basic connectivity
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and bandwidth tests and running the mininet CLI.
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Once the network is up and running, test code can easily get access
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to host and switch objects which can then be used for arbitrary
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experiments, typically involving running a series of commands on the
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hosts.
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After all desired tests or activities have been completed, the stop()
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method may be called to shut down the network.
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"""
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import os
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import re
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import select
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import signal
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from time import sleep
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from itertools import chain
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from mininet.cli import CLI
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from mininet.log import info, error, debug, output
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from mininet.node import Host, OVSKernelSwitch, Controller
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from mininet.link import Link, Intf
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from mininet.util import quietRun, fixLimits, numCores, ensureRoot
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from mininet.util import macColonHex, ipStr, ipParse, netParse, ipAdd
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from mininet.term import cleanUpScreens, makeTerms
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# Mininet version: should be consistent with README and LICENSE
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VERSION = "2.1.0+"
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class Mininet( object ):
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    "Network emulation with hosts spawned in network namespaces."
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    def __init__( self, topo=None, switch=OVSKernelSwitch, host=Host,
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                  controller=Controller, link=Link, intf=Intf,
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                  build=True, xterms=False, cleanup=False, ipBase='10.0.0.0/8',
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                  inNamespace=False,
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                  autoSetMacs=False, autoStaticArp=False, autoPinCpus=False,
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                  listenPort=None ):
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        """Create Mininet object.
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           topo: Topo (topology) object or None
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           switch: default Switch class
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           host: default Host class/constructor
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           controller: default Controller class/constructor
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           link: default Link class/constructor
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           intf: default Intf class/constructor
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           ipBase: base IP address for hosts,
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           build: build now from topo?
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           xterms: if build now, spawn xterms?
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           cleanup: if build now, cleanup before creating?
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           inNamespace: spawn switches and controller in net namespaces?
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           autoSetMacs: set MAC addrs automatically like IP addresses?
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           autoStaticArp: set all-pairs static MAC addrs?
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           autoPinCpus: pin hosts to (real) cores (requires CPULimitedHost)?
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           listenPort: base listening port to open; will be incremented for
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               each additional switch in the net if inNamespace=False"""
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        self.topo = topo
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        self.switch = switch
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        self.host = host
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        self.controller = controller
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        self.link = link
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        self.intf = intf
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        self.ipBase = ipBase
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        self.ipBaseNum, self.prefixLen = netParse( self.ipBase )
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        self.nextIP = 1  # start for address allocation
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        self.inNamespace = inNamespace
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        self.xterms = xterms
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        self.cleanup = cleanup
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        self.autoSetMacs = autoSetMacs
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        self.autoStaticArp = autoStaticArp
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        self.autoPinCpus = autoPinCpus
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        self.numCores = numCores()
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        self.nextCore = 0  # next core for pinning hosts to CPUs
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        self.listenPort = listenPort
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        self.hosts = []
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        self.switches = []
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        self.controllers = []
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        self.nameToNode = {}  # name to Node (Host/Switch) objects
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        self.terms = []  # list of spawned xterm processes
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        Mininet.init()  # Initialize Mininet if necessary
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        self.built = False
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        if topo and build:
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            self.build()
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    def addHost( self, name, cls=None, **params ):
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        """Add host.
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           name: name of host to add
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           cls: custom host class/constructor (optional)
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           params: parameters for host
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           returns: added host"""
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        # Default IP and MAC addresses
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        defaults = { 'ip': ipAdd( self.nextIP,
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                                  ipBaseNum=self.ipBaseNum,
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                                  prefixLen=self.prefixLen ) +
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                                  '/%s' % self.prefixLen }
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        if self.autoSetMacs:
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            defaults[ 'mac'] = macColonHex( self.nextIP )
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        if self.autoPinCpus:
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            defaults[ 'cores' ] = self.nextCore
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            self.nextCore = ( self.nextCore + 1 ) % self.numCores
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        self.nextIP += 1
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        defaults.update( params )
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        if not cls:
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            cls = self.host
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        h = cls( name, **defaults )
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        self.hosts.append( h )
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        self.nameToNode[ name ] = h
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        return h
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    def addSwitch( self, name, cls=None, **params ):
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        """Add switch.
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           name: name of switch to add
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           cls: custom switch class/constructor (optional)
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           returns: added switch
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           side effect: increments listenPort ivar ."""
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        defaults = { 'listenPort': self.listenPort,
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                     'inNamespace': self.inNamespace }
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        defaults.update( params )
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        if not cls:
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            cls = self.switch
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        sw = cls( name, **defaults )
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        if not self.inNamespace and self.listenPort:
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            self.listenPort += 1
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        self.switches.append( sw )
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        self.nameToNode[ name ] = sw
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        return sw
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    def addController( self, name='c0', controller=None, **params ):
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        """Add controller.
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           controller: Controller class"""
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        # Get controller class
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        if not controller:
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            controller = self.controller
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        # Construct new controller if one is not given
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        if isinstance(name, Controller):
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            controller_new = name
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            # Pylint thinks controller is a str()
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            # pylint: disable=E1103
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            name = controller_new.name
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            # pylint: enable=E1103
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        else:
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            controller_new = controller( name, **params )
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        # Add new controller to net
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        if controller_new:  # allow controller-less setups
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            self.controllers.append( controller_new )
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            self.nameToNode[ name ] = controller_new
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        return controller_new
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    # BL: We now have four ways to look up nodes
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    # This may (should?) be cleaned up in the future.
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    def getNodeByName( self, *args ):
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        "Return node(s) with given name(s)"
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        if len( args ) == 1:
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            return self.nameToNode[ args[ 0 ] ]
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        return [ self.nameToNode[ n ] for n in args ]
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    def get( self, *args ):
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        "Convenience alias for getNodeByName"
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        return self.getNodeByName( *args )
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    # Even more convenient syntax for node lookup and iteration
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    def __getitem__( self, key ):
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        """net [ name ] operator: Return node(s) with given name(s)"""
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        return self.nameToNode[ key ]
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    def __iter__( self ):
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        "return iterator over node names"
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        for node in chain( self.hosts, self.switches, self.controllers ):
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            yield node.name
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    def __len__( self ):
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        "returns number of nodes in net"
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        return ( len( self.hosts ) + len( self.switches ) +
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                 len( self.controllers ) )
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    def __contains__( self, item ):
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        "returns True if net contains named node"
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        return item in self.nameToNode
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    def keys( self ):
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        "return a list of all node names or net's keys"
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        return list( self )
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    def values( self ):
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        "return a list of all nodes or net's values"
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        return [ self[name] for name in self ]
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    def items( self ):
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        "return (key,value) tuple list for every node in net"
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        return zip( self.keys(), self.values() )
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    def addLink( self, node1, node2, port1=None, port2=None,
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                 cls=None, **params ):
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        """"Add a link from node1 to node2
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            node1: source node
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            node2: dest node
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            port1: source port
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            port2: dest port
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            returns: link object"""
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        defaults = { 'port1': port1,
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                     'port2': port2,
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                     'intf': self.intf }
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        defaults.update( params )
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        if not cls:
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            cls = self.link
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        return cls( node1, node2, **defaults )
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    def configHosts( self ):
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        "Configure a set of hosts."
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        for host in self.hosts:
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            info( host.name + ' ' )
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            intf = host.defaultIntf()
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            if intf:
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                host.configDefault()
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            else:
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                # Don't configure nonexistent intf
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                host.configDefault( ip=None, mac=None )
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            # You're low priority, dude!
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            # BL: do we want to do this here or not?
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            # May not make sense if we have CPU lmiting...
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            # quietRun( 'renice +18 -p ' + repr( host.pid ) )
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            # This may not be the right place to do this, but
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            # it needs to be done somewhere.
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            host.cmd( 'ifconfig lo up' )
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        info( '\n' )
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    def buildFromTopo( self, topo=None ):
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        """Build mininet from a topology object
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           At the end of this function, everything should be connected
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           and up."""
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        # Possibly we should clean up here and/or validate
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        # the topo
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        if self.cleanup:
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            pass
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        info( '*** Creating network\n' )
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        if not self.controllers and self.controller:
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            # Add a default controller
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            info( '*** Adding controller\n' )
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            classes = self.controller
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            if type( classes ) is not list:
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                classes = [ classes ]
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            for i, cls in enumerate( classes ):
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                self.addController( 'c%d' % i, cls )
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        info( '*** Adding hosts:\n' )
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        for hostName in topo.hosts():
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            self.addHost( hostName, **topo.nodeInfo( hostName ) )
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            info( hostName + ' ' )
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        info( '\n*** Adding switches:\n' )
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        for switchName in topo.switches():
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            self.addSwitch( switchName, **topo.nodeInfo( switchName) )
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            info( switchName + ' ' )
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        info( '\n*** Adding links:\n' )
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        for srcName, dstName in topo.links(sort=True):
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            src, dst = self.nameToNode[ srcName ], self.nameToNode[ dstName ]
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            params = topo.linkInfo( srcName, dstName )
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            srcPort, dstPort = topo.port( srcName, dstName )
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            self.addLink( src, dst, srcPort, dstPort, **params )
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            info( '(%s, %s) ' % ( src.name, dst.name ) )
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        info( '\n' )
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    def configureControlNetwork( self ):
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        "Control net config hook: override in subclass"
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        raise Exception( 'configureControlNetwork: '
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                         'should be overriden in subclass', self )
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    def build( self ):
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        "Build mininet."
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        if self.topo:
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            self.buildFromTopo( self.topo )
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        if self.inNamespace:
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            self.configureControlNetwork()
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        info( '*** Configuring hosts\n' )
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        self.configHosts()
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        if self.xterms:
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            self.startTerms()
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        if self.autoStaticArp:
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            self.staticArp()
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        self.built = True
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    def startTerms( self ):
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        "Start a terminal for each node."
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        if 'DISPLAY' not in os.environ:
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            error( "Error starting terms: Cannot connect to display\n" )
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            return
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        info( "*** Running terms on %s\n" % os.environ[ 'DISPLAY' ] )
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        cleanUpScreens()
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        self.terms += makeTerms( self.controllers, 'controller' )
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        self.terms += makeTerms( self.switches, 'switch' )
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        self.terms += makeTerms( self.hosts, 'host' )
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    def stopXterms( self ):
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        "Kill each xterm."
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        for term in self.terms:
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            os.kill( term.pid, signal.SIGKILL )
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        cleanUpScreens()
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    def staticArp( self ):
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        "Add all-pairs ARP entries to remove the need to handle broadcast."
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        for src in self.hosts:
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            for dst in self.hosts:
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                if src != dst:
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                    src.setARP( ip=dst.IP(), mac=dst.MAC() )
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    def start( self ):
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        "Start controller and switches."
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        if not self.built:
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            self.build()
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        info( '*** Starting controller\n' )
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        for controller in self.controllers:
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            controller.start()
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        info( '*** Starting %s switches\n' % len( self.switches ) )
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        for switch in self.switches:
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            info( switch.name + ' ')
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            switch.start( self.controllers )
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        info( '\n' )
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    def stop( self ):
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        "Stop the controller(s), switches and hosts"
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        if self.terms:
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            info( '*** Stopping %i terms\n' % len( self.terms ) )
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            self.stopXterms()
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        info( '*** Stopping %i switches\n' % len( self.switches ) )
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        for switch in self.switches:
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            info( switch.name + ' ' )
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            switch.stop()
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        info( '\n' )
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        info( '*** Stopping %i hosts\n' % len( self.hosts ) )
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        for host in self.hosts:
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            info( host.name + ' ' )
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            host.terminate()
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        info( '\n' )
420 019bff82 Bob Lantz
        info( '*** Stopping %i controllers\n' % len( self.controllers ) )
421
        for controller in self.controllers:
422 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
            info( controller.name + ' ' )
423 019bff82 Bob Lantz
            controller.stop()
424 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
        info( '\n*** Done\n' )
425 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
426 67516aa4 Bob Lantz
    def run( self, test, *args, **kwargs ):
427 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        "Perform a complete start/test/stop cycle."
428 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
        self.start()
429 d5886525 Bob Lantz
        info( '*** Running test\n' )
430 67516aa4 Bob Lantz
        result = test( *args, **kwargs )
431 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
        self.stop()
432
        return result
433
434 259d7133 Bob Lantz
    def monitor( self, hosts=None, timeoutms=-1 ):
435 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        """Monitor a set of hosts (or all hosts by default),
436
           and return their output, a line at a time.
437 259d7133 Bob Lantz
           hosts: (optional) set of hosts to monitor
438
           timeoutms: (optional) timeout value in ms
439
           returns: iterator which returns host, line"""
440 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        if hosts is None:
441
            hosts = self.hosts
442
        poller = select.poll()
443 cf6f6704 Bob Lantz
        Node = hosts[ 0 ]  # so we can call class method fdToNode
444 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        for host in hosts:
445
            poller.register( host.stdout )
446
        while True:
447 259d7133 Bob Lantz
            ready = poller.poll( timeoutms )
448 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
            for fd, event in ready:
449
                host = Node.fdToNode( fd )
450
                if event & select.POLLIN:
451
                    line = host.readline()
452 259d7133 Bob Lantz
                    if line is not None:
453 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
                        yield host, line
454 259d7133 Bob Lantz
            # Return if non-blocking
455
            if not ready and timeoutms >= 0:
456
                yield None, None
457 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
458 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
    # XXX These test methods should be moved out of this class.
459
    # Probably we should create a tests.py for them
460
461 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
    @staticmethod
462 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
    def _parsePing( pingOutput ):
463
        "Parse ping output and return packets sent, received."
464 3fac5a43 Brandon Heller
        # Check for downed link
465
        if 'connect: Network is unreachable' in pingOutput:
466 824afb84 Rémy Léone
            return 1, 0
467 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
        r = r'(\d+) packets transmitted, (\d+) received'
468 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        m = re.search( r, pingOutput )
469 7a506047 Brandon Heller
        if m is None:
470 d5886525 Bob Lantz
            error( '*** Error: could not parse ping output: %s\n' %
471 2e089b5e Brandon Heller
                   pingOutput )
472 824afb84 Rémy Léone
            return 1, 0
473 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        sent, received = int( m.group( 1 ) ), int( m.group( 2 ) )
474 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
        return sent, received
475
476 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
    def ping( self, hosts=None, timeout=None ):
477 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        """Ping between all specified hosts.
478 019bff82 Bob Lantz
           hosts: list of hosts
479 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
           timeout: time to wait for a response, as string
480 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
           returns: ploss packet loss percentage"""
481 d44a5843 Bob Lantz
        # should we check if running?
482 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
        packets = 0
483
        lost = 0
484
        ploss = None
485
        if not hosts:
486 019bff82 Bob Lantz
            hosts = self.hosts
487 cdeaca86 Brandon Heller
            output( '*** Ping: testing ping reachability\n' )
488 019bff82 Bob Lantz
        for node in hosts:
489 cdeaca86 Brandon Heller
            output( '%s -> ' % node.name )
490 019bff82 Bob Lantz
            for dest in hosts:
491 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
                if node != dest:
492 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
                    opts = ''
493
                    if timeout:
494
                        opts = '-W %s' % timeout
495
                    result = node.cmd( 'ping -c1 %s %s' % (opts, dest.IP()) )
496 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
                    sent, received = self._parsePing( result )
497 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
                    packets += sent
498
                    if received > sent:
499 d5886525 Bob Lantz
                        error( '*** Error: received too many packets' )
500
                        error( '%s' % result )
501 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
                        node.cmdPrint( 'route' )
502
                        exit( 1 )
503 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
                    lost += sent - received
504 cdeaca86 Brandon Heller
                    output( ( '%s ' % dest.name ) if received else 'X ' )
505
            output( '\n' )
506 c188bee3 Brian O'Connor
        if packets > 0:
507 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
            ploss = 100 * lost / packets
508 fec98e27 Brian O'Connor
            received = packets - lost
509
            output( "*** Results: %i%% dropped (%d/%d received)\n" %
510
                    ( ploss, received, packets ) )
511 c188bee3 Brian O'Connor
        else:
512
            ploss = 0
513
            output( "*** Warning: No packets sent\n" )
514 8b5062a3 Brandon Heller
        return ploss
515
516 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
    @staticmethod
517
    def _parsePingFull( pingOutput ):
518
        "Parse ping output and return all data."
519 1ecc63df Brian O'Connor
        errorTuple = (1, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0)
520 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
        # Check for downed link
521 1ecc63df Brian O'Connor
        r = r'[uU]nreachable'
522
        m = re.search( r, pingOutput )
523
        if m is not None:
524
            return errorTuple
525 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
        r = r'(\d+) packets transmitted, (\d+) received'
526
        m = re.search( r, pingOutput )
527
        if m is None:
528
            error( '*** Error: could not parse ping output: %s\n' %
529
                   pingOutput )
530 1ecc63df Brian O'Connor
            return errorTuple
531 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
        sent, received = int( m.group( 1 ) ), int( m.group( 2 ) )
532
        r = r'rtt min/avg/max/mdev = '
533
        r += r'(\d+\.\d+)/(\d+\.\d+)/(\d+\.\d+)/(\d+\.\d+) ms'
534
        m = re.search( r, pingOutput )
535 1ecc63df Brian O'Connor
        if m is None:
536
            error( '*** Error: could not parse ping output: %s\n' %
537
                   pingOutput )
538
            return errorTuple
539 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
        rttmin = float( m.group( 1 ) )
540
        rttavg = float( m.group( 2 ) )
541
        rttmax = float( m.group( 3 ) )
542
        rttdev = float( m.group( 4 ) )
543
        return sent, received, rttmin, rttavg, rttmax, rttdev
544
545
    def pingFull( self, hosts=None, timeout=None ):
546
        """Ping between all specified hosts and return all data.
547
           hosts: list of hosts
548
           timeout: time to wait for a response, as string
549
           returns: all ping data; see function body."""
550
        # should we check if running?
551
        # Each value is a tuple: (src, dsd, [all ping outputs])
552
        all_outputs = []
553
        if not hosts:
554
            hosts = self.hosts
555
            output( '*** Ping: testing ping reachability\n' )
556
        for node in hosts:
557
            output( '%s -> ' % node.name )
558
            for dest in hosts:
559
                if node != dest:
560
                    opts = ''
561
                    if timeout:
562
                        opts = '-W %s' % timeout
563
                    result = node.cmd( 'ping -c1 %s %s' % (opts, dest.IP()) )
564
                    outputs = self._parsePingFull( result )
565
                    sent, received, rttmin, rttavg, rttmax, rttdev = outputs
566
                    all_outputs.append( (node, dest, outputs) )
567
                    output( ( '%s ' % dest.name ) if received else 'X ' )
568
            output( '\n' )
569
        output( "*** Results: \n" )
570
        for outputs in all_outputs:
571
            src, dest, ping_outputs = outputs
572
            sent, received, rttmin, rttavg, rttmax, rttdev = ping_outputs
573
            output( " %s->%s: %s/%s, " % (src, dest, sent, received ) )
574
            output( "rtt min/avg/max/mdev %0.3f/%0.3f/%0.3f/%0.3f ms\n" %
575
                    (rttmin, rttavg, rttmax, rttdev) )
576
        return all_outputs
577
578 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
    def pingAll( self ):
579
        """Ping between all hosts.
580
           returns: ploss packet loss percentage"""
581 1bb4412f Brandon Heller
        return self.ping()
582 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
583 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
    def pingPair( self ):
584
        """Ping between first two hosts, useful for testing.
585
           returns: ploss packet loss percentage"""
586 019bff82 Bob Lantz
        hosts = [ self.hosts[ 0 ], self.hosts[ 1 ] ]
587 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        return self.ping( hosts=hosts )
588 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
589 1f1d590c Brandon Heller
    def pingAllFull( self ):
590
        """Ping between all hosts.
591
           returns: ploss packet loss percentage"""
592
        return self.pingFull()
593
594
    def pingPairFull( self ):
595
        """Ping between first two hosts, useful for testing.
596
           returns: ploss packet loss percentage"""
597
        hosts = [ self.hosts[ 0 ], self.hosts[ 1 ] ]
598
        return self.pingFull( hosts=hosts )
599
600 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
    @staticmethod
601 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
    def _parseIperf( iperfOutput ):
602
        """Parse iperf output and return bandwidth.
603
           iperfOutput: string
604
           returns: result string"""
605 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        r = r'([\d\.]+ \w+/sec)'
606 ad2fda25 Bob Lantz
        m = re.findall( r, iperfOutput )
607 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        if m:
608 ad2fda25 Bob Lantz
            return m[-1]
609 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        else:
610 ad2fda25 Bob Lantz
            # was: raise Exception(...)
611
            error( 'could not parse iperf output: ' + iperfOutput )
612
            return ''
613 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
614 216a4b7c Bob Lantz
    # XXX This should be cleaned up
615
616 1a40cd04 Brandon Heller
    def iperf( self, hosts=None, l4Type='TCP', udpBw='10M' ):
617 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        """Run iperf between two hosts.
618 019bff82 Bob Lantz
           hosts: list of hosts; if None, uses opposite hosts
619 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
           l4Type: string, one of [ TCP, UDP ]
620
           returns: results two-element array of server and client speeds"""
621 ad2fda25 Bob Lantz
        if not quietRun( 'which telnet' ):
622
            error( 'Cannot find telnet in $PATH - required for iperf test' )
623
            return
624 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        if not hosts:
625 019bff82 Bob Lantz
            hosts = [ self.hosts[ 0 ], self.hosts[ -1 ] ]
626 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        else:
627 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
            assert len( hosts ) == 2
628 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        client, server = hosts
629 cdeaca86 Brandon Heller
        output( '*** Iperf: testing ' + l4Type + ' bandwidth between ' )
630 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        output( "%s and %s\n" % ( client.name, server.name ) )
631
        server.cmd( 'killall -9 iperf' )
632 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        iperfArgs = 'iperf '
633
        bwArgs = ''
634
        if l4Type == 'UDP':
635
            iperfArgs += '-u '
636
            bwArgs = '-b ' + udpBw + ' '
637
        elif l4Type != 'TCP':
638
            raise Exception( 'Unexpected l4 type: %s' % l4Type )
639 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        server.sendCmd( iperfArgs + '-s', printPid=True )
640
        servout = ''
641
        while server.lastPid is None:
642
            servout += server.monitor()
643 8856d284 Bob Lantz
        if l4Type == 'TCP':
644
            while 'Connected' not in client.cmd(
645 615ebb7a Brandon Heller
                    'sh -c "echo A | telnet -e A %s 5001"' % server.IP()):
646 8856d284 Bob Lantz
                output('waiting for iperf to start up...')
647
                sleep(.5)
648 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        cliout = client.cmd( iperfArgs + '-t 5 -c ' + server.IP() + ' ' +
649 edf60032 Brandon Heller
                             bwArgs )
650 ec7b211c Bob Lantz
        debug( 'Client output: %s\n' % cliout )
651
        server.sendInt()
652
        servout += server.waitOutput()
653
        debug( 'Server output: %s\n' % servout )
654
        result = [ self._parseIperf( servout ), self._parseIperf( cliout ) ]
655 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
        if l4Type == 'UDP':
656
            result.insert( 0, udpBw )
657 cdeaca86 Brandon Heller
        output( '*** Results: %s\n' % result )
658 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        return result
659
660 fcd01592 Brandon Heller
    def runCpuLimitTest( self, cpu, duration=5 ):
661
        """run CPU limit test with 'while true' processes.
662
        cpu: desired CPU fraction of each host
663
        duration: test duration in seconds
664
        returns a single list of measured CPU fractions as floats.
665
        """
666
        pct = cpu * 100
667
        info('*** Testing CPU %.0f%% bandwidth limit\n' % pct)
668
        hosts = self.hosts
669
        for h in hosts:
670
            h.cmd( 'while true; do a=1; done &' )
671
        pids = [h.cmd( 'echo $!' ).strip() for h in hosts]
672
        pids_str = ",".join(["%s" % pid for pid in pids])
673
        cmd = 'ps -p %s -o pid,%%cpu,args' % pids_str
674
        # It's a shame that this is what pylint prefers
675
        outputs = []
676
        for _ in range( duration ):
677
            sleep( 1 )
678
            outputs.append( quietRun( cmd ).strip() )
679
        for h in hosts:
680
            h.cmd( 'kill %1' )
681
        cpu_fractions = []
682
        for test_output in outputs:
683
            # Split by line.  Ignore first line, which looks like this:
684
            # PID %CPU COMMAND\n
685
            for line in test_output.split('\n')[1:]:
686 03c3123b Brandon Heller
                r = r'\d+\s*(\d+\.\d+)'
687 fcd01592 Brandon Heller
                m = re.search( r, line )
688
                if m is None:
689
                    error( '*** Error: could not extract CPU fraction: %s\n' %
690
                           line )
691
                    return None
692
                cpu_fractions.append( float( m.group( 1 ) ) )
693
        output( '*** Results: %s\n' % cpu_fractions )
694
        return cpu_fractions
695
696 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
    # BL: I think this can be rewritten now that we have
697
    # a real link class.
698 c70aab0a Bob Lantz
    def configLinkStatus( self, src, dst, status ):
699
        """Change status of src <-> dst links.
700
           src: node name
701
           dst: node name
702
           status: string {up, down}"""
703 8d3c2859 Brandon Heller
        if src not in self.nameToNode:
704
            error( 'src not in network: %s\n' % src )
705
        elif dst not in self.nameToNode:
706
            error( 'dst not in network: %s\n' % dst )
707
        else:
708 8856d284 Bob Lantz
            if type( src ) is str:
709
                src = self.nameToNode[ src ]
710
            if type( dst ) is str:
711
                dst = self.nameToNode[ dst ]
712
            connections = src.connectionsTo( dst )
713 fb2f6523 Bob Lantz
            if len( connections ) == 0:
714 8d3c2859 Brandon Heller
                error( 'src and dst not connected: %s %s\n' % ( src, dst) )
715 fb2f6523 Bob Lantz
            for srcIntf, dstIntf in connections:
716 8856d284 Bob Lantz
                result = srcIntf.ifconfig( status )
717 8d3c2859 Brandon Heller
                if result:
718
                    error( 'link src status change failed: %s\n' % result )
719 8856d284 Bob Lantz
                result = dstIntf.ifconfig( status )
720 8d3c2859 Brandon Heller
                if result:
721
                    error( 'link dst status change failed: %s\n' % result )
722
723 80a8fa62 Bob Lantz
    def interact( self ):
724
        "Start network and run our simple CLI."
725 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        self.start()
726 496b5f9e Bob Lantz
        result = CLI( self )
727 eeb9cb3c Brandon Heller
        self.stop()
728
        return result
729 82b72072 Bob Lantz
730 8e3699ec Bob Lantz
    inited = False
731 14ff3ad3 Bob Lantz
732 8e3699ec Bob Lantz
    @classmethod
733
    def init( cls ):
734
        "Initialize Mininet"
735
        if cls.inited:
736
            return
737 bcfb3009 Brandon Heller
        ensureRoot()
738 8e3699ec Bob Lantz
        fixLimits()
739
        cls.inited = True
740
741 82b72072 Bob Lantz
742 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
class MininetWithControlNet( Mininet ):
743
744
    """Control network support:
745

746
       Create an explicit control network. Currently this is only
747
       used/usable with the user datapath.
748

749
       Notes:
750

751
       1. If the controller and switches are in the same (e.g. root)
752
          namespace, they can just use the loopback connection.
753

754
       2. If we can get unix domain sockets to work, we can use them
755
          instead of an explicit control network.
756

757
       3. Instead of routing, we could bridge or use 'in-band' control.
758

759
       4. Even if we dispense with this in general, it could still be
760
          useful for people who wish to simulate a separate control
761
          network (since real networks may need one!)
762

763
       5. Basically nobody ever used this code, so it has been moved
764 14ff3ad3 Bob Lantz
          into its own class.
765

766
       6. Ultimately we may wish to extend this to allow us to create a
767
          control network which every node's control interface is
768
          attached to."""
769 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
770
    def configureControlNetwork( self ):
771
        "Configure control network."
772
        self.configureRoutedControlNetwork()
773
774
    # We still need to figure out the right way to pass
775
    # in the control network location.
776
777
    def configureRoutedControlNetwork( self, ip='192.168.123.1',
778 edf60032 Brandon Heller
                                       prefixLen=16 ):
779 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
        """Configure a routed control network on controller and switches.
780
           For use with the user datapath only right now."""
781
        controller = self.controllers[ 0 ]
782
        info( controller.name + ' <->' )
783
        cip = ip
784
        snum = ipParse( ip )
785
        for switch in self.switches:
786
            info( ' ' + switch.name )
787 14ff3ad3 Bob Lantz
            link = self.link( switch, controller, port1=0 )
788
            sintf, cintf = link.intf1, link.intf2
789
            switch.controlIntf = sintf
790 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
            snum += 1
791
            while snum & 0xff in [ 0, 255 ]:
792
                snum += 1
793
            sip = ipStr( snum )
794 14ff3ad3 Bob Lantz
            cintf.setIP( cip, prefixLen )
795
            sintf.setIP( sip, prefixLen )
796 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
            controller.setHostRoute( sip, cintf )
797
            switch.setHostRoute( cip, sintf )
798
        info( '\n' )
799
        info( '*** Testing control network\n' )
800 14ff3ad3 Bob Lantz
        while not cintf.isUp():
801 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
            info( '*** Waiting for', cintf, 'to come up\n' )
802
            sleep( 1 )
803
        for switch in self.switches:
804 14ff3ad3 Bob Lantz
            while not sintf.isUp():
805 84a91a14 Bob Lantz
                info( '*** Waiting for', sintf, 'to come up\n' )
806
                sleep( 1 )
807
            if self.ping( hosts=[ switch, controller ] ) != 0:
808
                error( '*** Error: control network test failed\n' )
809
                exit( 1 )
810
        info( '\n' )