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% url.sty  ver 1.2    19-Oct-1996   Donald Arseneau   asnd@triumf.ca
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%
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% A form of \verb that allows linebreaks at certain characters or 
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% combinations of characters, accepts reconfiguration, and can usually
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% be used in the argument to another command.  It is intended for email
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% addresses, hypertext links, directories/paths, etc., which normally 
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% have no spaces.  The font may be selected using the \urlstyle command, 
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% and new url-like commands can be defined using \urldef.
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%
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% Usage:    Conditions:
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% \url{ }   If the argument contains any "%", "#", or "^^", or ends with
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%           "\", it can't be used in the argument to another command.  
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%           The argument must not contain unbalanced braces.
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% \url|  |  ...where "|" is any character not used in the argument and not 
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%           "{".  The same restrictions as above except that the argument
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%           may contain unbalanced braces.
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% \xyz      for "\xyz" a defined-url;  this can be used anywhere, no matter
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%           what characters it contains.
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% 
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% See further instructions after "\endinput"
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%
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\def\Url@ttdo{% style assignments for tt fonts or T1 encoding
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\def\UrlBreaks{\do\.\do\@\do\\\do\/\do\!\do\_\do\|\do\%\do\;\do\>\do\]%
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 \do\)\do\,\do\?\do\'\do\+\do\=}%
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\def\UrlBigBreaks{\do\:\do@url@hyp}%
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\def\UrlNoBreaks{\do\(\do\[\do\{\do\<}% (unnecessary)
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\def\UrlSpecials{\do\ {\ }}%
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\def\UrlOrds{\do\*\do\-\do\~}% any ordinary characters that aren't usually
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}
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\def\Url@do{% style assignments for OT1 fonts except tt
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\def\UrlBreaks{\do\.\do\@\do\/\do\!\do\%\do\;\do\]\do\)\do\,\do\?\do\+\do\=}%
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\def\UrlBigBreaks{\do\:\do@url@hyp}%
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\def\UrlNoBreaks{\do\(\do\[\do\{}% prevents breaks after *next* character
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\def\UrlSpecials{\do\<{\langle}\do\>{\mathbin{\rangle}}\do\_{\_%
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 \penalty\@m}\do\|{\mid}\do\{{\lbrace}\do\}{\mathbin{\rbrace}}\do
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 \\{\mathbin{\backslash}}\do\~{\mathord{{}^{\textstyle\sim}}}\do\ {\ }}%
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\def\UrlOrds{\do\'\do\"\do\-}%
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}
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\def\url@ttstyle{%
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\@ifundefined{selectfont}{\def\UrlFont{\tt}}{\def\UrlFont{\ttfamily}}\Url@ttdo
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}
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\def\url@rmstyle{%
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\@ifundefined{selectfont}{\def\UrlFont{\rm}}{\def\UrlFont{\rmfamily}}\Url@do
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}
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\def\url@sfstyle{%
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\@ifundefined{selectfont}{\def\UrlFont{\sf}}{\def\UrlFont{\sffamily}}\Url@do
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}
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\def\url@samestyle{\ifdim\fontdimen\thr@@\font=\z@ \url@ttstyle \else
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  \url@rmstyle \fi \def\UrlFont{}}
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\@ifundefined{strip@prefix}{\def\strip@prefix#1>{}}{}
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\@ifundefined{verbatim@nolig@list}{\def\verbatim@nolig@list{\do\`}}{}
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\def\Url{\relax\ifmmode\@nomatherr$\fi 
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 \UrlFont $\fam\z@ \textfont\z@\font 
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 \let\do\@makeother \dospecials % verbatim catcodes
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 \catcode`{\@ne \catcode`}\tw@ % except braces 
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 \medmuskip0mu \thickmuskip\medmuskip \thinmuskip\medmuskip
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 \@tempcnta\fam\multiply\@tempcnta\@cclvi 
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 \let\do\set@mathcode \UrlOrds % ordinary characters that were special
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 \advance\@tempcnta 8192 \UrlBreaks % bin
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 \advance\@tempcnta 4096 \UrlBigBreaks % rel
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 \advance\@tempcnta 4096 \UrlNoBreaks % open
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 \let\do\set@mathact \UrlSpecials % active
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 \let\do\set@mathnolig \verbatim@nolig@list % prevent ligatures 
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 \@ifnextchar\bgroup\Url@z\Url@y}
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\def\Url@y#1{\catcode`{11 \catcode`}11
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  \def\@tempa##1#1{\Url@z{##1}}\@tempa}
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\def\Url@z#1{\def\@tempa{#1}\expandafter\expandafter\expandafter\Url@Hook
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  \expandafter\strip@prefix\meaning\@tempa\UrlRight\m@th$\endgroup}
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\def\Url@Hook{\UrlLeft}
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\let\UrlRight\@empty
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\let\UrlLeft\@empty
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\def\set@mathcode#1{\count@`#1\advance\count@\@tempcnta\mathcode`#1\count@}
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\def\set@mathact#1#2{\mathcode`#132768 \lccode`\~`#1\lowercase{\def~{#2}}}
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\def\set@mathnolig#1{\ifnum\mathcode`#1<32768
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   \lccode`\~`#1\lowercase{\edef~{\mathchar\number\mathcode`#1_{\/}}}%
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   \mathcode`#132768 \fi}
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\def\urldef#1#2{\begingroup \setbox\z@\hbox\bgroup
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  \def\Url@z{\Url@def{#1}{#2}}#2}
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\expandafter\ifx\csname DeclareRobustCommand\endcsname\relax
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  \def\Url@def#1#2#3{\m@th$\endgroup\egroup\endgroup
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    \def#1{#2{#3}}}
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\else
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  \def\Url@def#1#2#3{\m@th$\endgroup\egroup\endgroup
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    \DeclareRobustCommand{#1}{#2{#3}}}
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\fi
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\def\urlstyle#1{\csname url@#1style\endcsname}
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% Sample (and default) configuration:
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%
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\newcommand\url{\begingroup \Url}
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%
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\newcommand\path{\begingroup \urlstyle{tt}\Url}
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%
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% too many styles define \email like \address, so I will not define it.
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% \newcommand\email{\begingroup \urlstyle{rm}\Url}
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% Process LaTeX \package options
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%
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\urlstyle{tt}
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\let\Url@sppen\@M
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\def\do@url@hyp{}% by default, no breaks after hyphens
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\@ifundefined{ProvidesPackage}{}{
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  \ProvidesPackage{url}[1996/10/19 \space ver 1.2 \space 
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       Verb mode for urls, email addresses, and file names]
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  \DeclareOption{hyphens}{\def\do@url@hyp{\do\-}}% allow breaks after hyphens
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  \DeclareOption{obeyspaces}{\let\Url@Hook\relax}% a flag for later
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  \DeclareOption{spaces}{\let\Url@sppen\relpenalty}
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  \DeclareOption{T1}{\let\Url@do\Url@ttdo}
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  \ProcessOptions
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\ifx\Url@Hook\relax % [obeyspaces] was declared
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  \def\Url@Hook#1\UrlRight\m@th{\edef\@tempa{\noexpand\UrlLeft
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    \Url@retain#1\Url@nosp\, }\@tempa\UrlRight\m@th}
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  \def\Url@retain#1 {#1\penalty\Url@sppen\ \Url@retain}
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  \def\Url@nosp\,#1\Url@retain{}
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\fi
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}
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\endinput
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%
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% url.sty  ver 1.2    19-Oct-1996   Donald Arseneau   asnd@reg.triumf.ca
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%
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% This package defines "\url", a form of "\verb" that allows linebreaks,
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% and can often be used in the argument to another command.  It can be
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% configured to print in different formats, and is particularly useful for 
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% hypertext links, email addresses, directories/paths, etc.  The font may 
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% be selected using the "\urlstyle" command and pre-defined text can be 
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% stored with the "\urldef" command. New url-like commands can be defined, 
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% and a "\path" command is provided this way. 
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%
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% Usage:    Conditions:
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% \url{ }   If the argument contains any "%", "#", or "^^", or ends with 
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%           "\", it can't be used in the argument to another command.  
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%           The argument must not contain unbalanced braces.
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% \url|  |  ...where "|" is any character not used in the argument and not 
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%           "{".  The same restrictions as above except that the argument
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%           may contain unbalanced braces.
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% \xyz      for "\xyz" a defined-url;  this can be used anywhere, no matter
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%           what characters it contains.
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% 
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% The "\url" command is fragile, and its argument is likely to be very
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% fragile, but a defined-url is robust.
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%
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% Package Option:  obeyspaces
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% Ordinarily, all spaces are ignored in the url-text.  The "[obeyspaces]" 
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% option allows spaces, but may introduce spurious spaces when a url
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% containing "\" characters is given in the argument to another command.  
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% So if you need to obey spaces you can say "\usepackage[obeyspaces]{url}",
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% and if you need both spaces and backslashes, use a `defined-url' for 
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% anything with "\".
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%
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% Package Option:  hyphens
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% Ordinarily, breaks are not allowed after "-" characters because this 
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% leads to confusion. (Is the "-" part of the address or just a hyphen?)  
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% The package option "[hyphens]" allows breaks after explicit hyphen 
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% characters.  The "\url" command will *never ever* hyphenate words.
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%
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% Package Option:  spaces
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% Likewise, breaks are not usually allowed after spaces under the 
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% "[obeyspaces]" option, but giving the options "[obeyspaces,spaces]"
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% will allow breaks at those spaces.
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%
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% Package Option:  T1
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% This signifies that you will be using T1-encoded fonts which contain
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% some characters missing from most older (OT1) encoded TeX fonts.  This
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% changes the default definition for "\urlstyle{rm}".
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% 
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% Defining a defined-url:
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% Take for example the email address "myself%node@gateway.net" which could
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% not be given (using "\url" or "\verb") in a caption or parbox due to the
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% percent sign.  This address can be predefined with 
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%    \urldef{\myself}\url{myself%node@gateway.net}   or
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%    \urldef{\myself}\url|myself%node@gateway.net|
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% and then you may use "\myself" instead of "\url{myself%node@gateway.net}"
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% in an argument, and even in a moving argument like a caption because a
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% defined-url is robust.
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%
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% Style: 
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% You can switch the style of printing using "\urlstyle{tt}", where "tt"
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% can be any defined style.  The pre-defined styles are "tt", "rm", "sf", 
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% and "same" which all allow the same linebreaks but different fonts -- 
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% the first three select a specific font and the "same" style uses the
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% current text font.  You can define your own styles with different fonts 
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% and/or line-breaking by following the explanations below.  The "\url" 
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% command follows whatever the currently-set style dictates.
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%
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% Alternate commands:
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% It may be desireable to have different things treated differently, each
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% in a predefined style; e.g., if you want directory paths to always be 
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% in tt and email addresses to be rm, then you would define new url-like
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% commands as follows:
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%
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%    \newcommand\email{\begingroup \urlstyle{rm}\Url}
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%    \newcommand\directory{\begingroup \urlstyle{tt}\Url}
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%
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% You must follow this format closely, and NOTE that the final command is 
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% "\Url", not "\url".  In fact, the "\directory" example is exactly the 
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% "\path" definition which is pre-defined in the package.  If you look 
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% above, you will see that "\url" is defined with
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%    \newcommand\url{\begingroup \Url}
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% I.e., using whatever url-style has been selected.
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%
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% You can make a defined-url for these other styles, using the usual 
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% "\urldef" command as in this example:
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%
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%    \urldef{\myself}{\email}{myself%node.domain@gateway.net}
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%
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% which makes "\myself" act like "\email{myself%node.domain@gateway.net}",
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% if the "\email" command is defined as above.  The "\myself" command 
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% would then be robust.
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%
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% Defining styles:
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% Before describing how to customize the printing style, it is best to 
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% mention something about the unusual implementation of "\url".  Although
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% the material is textual in nature, and the font specification required
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% is a text-font command, the text is actually typeset in *math* mode.
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% This allows the context-sensitive linebreaking, but also accounts for
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% the default behavior of ignoring spaces.  Now on to defining styles.
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%
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% To change the font or the list of characters that allow linebreaks, you
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% could redefine the commands "\UrlFont", "\UrlBreaks", "\UrlSpecials" etc.
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% directly in the document, but it is better to define a new `url-style' 
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% (following the example of "\url@ttstyle" and "\url@rmstyle") which defines 
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% all of "\UrlBigbreaks", "\UrlNoBreaks", "\UrlBreaks", "\UrlSpecials", and 
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% "\UrlFont".
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%
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% Changing font:
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% The "\UrlFont" command selects the font.  The definition of "\UrlFont"
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% done by the pre-defined styles varies to cope with a variety of LaTeX
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% font selection schemes, but it could be as simple as "\def\UrlFont{\tt}".
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% Depending on the font selected, some characters may need to be defined 
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% in the "\UrlSpecials" list because many fonts don't contain all the 
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% standard input characters.  
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%
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% Changing linebreaks:
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% The list of characters that allow line-breaks is given by "\UrlBreaks" 
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% and "\UrlBigBreaks", which have the format "\do\c" for character "c". 
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% The differences are that `BigBreaks' have a lower penalty and have 
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% different breakpoints when in sequence (as in "http://"): `BigBreaks' 
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% are treated as mathrels while `Breaks' are mathbins (see The TeXbook, 
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% p.170). In particular, a series of `BigBreak' characters will break at 
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% the end and only at the end; a series of `Break' characters will break 
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% after the first and after every following *pair*; there will be no 
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% break after a `Break' character if a `BigBreak' follows.  In the case 
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% of "http://" it doesn't matter whether ":" is a `Break' or `BigBreak' --
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% the breaks are the same in either case; but for DECnet nodes with "::"
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% it is important to prevent breaks *between* the colons, and that is why 
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% colons are `BigBreaks'.
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%
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% It is possible for characters to prevent breaks after the next following 
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% character (I use this for parentheses).  Specify these in "\UrlNoBreaks". 
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%
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% You can do arbitrarily complex things with characters by making them 
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% active in math mode (mathcode hex-8000) and specifying the definition(s)
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% in "\UrlSpecials".  This is used in the rm and sf styles for OT1 font
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% encoding to handle several characters that are not present in those
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% computer-modern style fonts.  See the definition of "\Url@do", which 
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% is used by both "\url@rmstyle" and "\url@sfstyle"; it handles missing 
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% characters via "\UrlSpecials".  The nominal format for setting each 
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% special character "c" is: "\do\c{<definition>}", but you can include 
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% other definitions too.
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%
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%
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% If all this sounds confusing ... well, it is!  But I hope you won't need 
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% to redefine breakpoints -- the default assignments seem to work well for 
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% a wide variety of applications.  If you do need to make changes, you can 
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% test for breakpoints using regular math mode and the characters "+=(a".
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%
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% Yet more flexibility:
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% You can also customize the verbatim text by defining "\UrlRight" and/or 
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% "\UrlLeft", e.g., for ISO formatting of urls surrounded by "<  >", define
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%
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%    \renewcommand\url{\begingroup \def\UrlLeft{<url: }\def\UrlRight{>}%
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%        \urlstyle{tt}\Url}
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%
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% The meanings of "\UrlLeft" and "\UrlRight" are *not* reproduced verbatim.
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% This lets you use formatting commands there, but you must be careful not
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% to use TeX's special characters ("\^_%~#$&{}" etc.) improperly.
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% You can also define "\UrlLeft" to reprocess the verbatim text, but the 
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% format of the definition is special:
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%
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%    \def\UrlLeft#1\UrlRight{ ... do things with #1 ... }
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%
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% Yes, that is "#1" followed by "\UrlRight" then the definition.  For 
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% example, to put a hyperTeX hypertext link in the DVI file:
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%
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%    \def\UrlLeft#1\UrlRight{\special{html:<a href="#1">}#1\special{html:</a>}}
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%
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% Revision History:
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% ver 1.1 6-Feb-1996:  
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% Fix hyphens that wouldn't break and ligatures that weren't suppressed.
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% ver 1.2 19-Oct-1996:
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% Package option for T1 encoding; Hooks: "\UrlLeft" and "\UrlRight".  
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%
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% The End