matroskadec: add generic element length validation.
This validate the length of a mkv element directly after reading
This has the advantage that it is easy to add new limits and makes
it less likely to forget to add checks and also avoids issues like
bits of the length value above the first 32 being ignored because
the parsing functions only takes an int.
Previously discussed in the "mkv 0-byte integer parsing" thread.
Signed-off-by: Ronald S. Bultje <firstname.lastname@example.org>